Measuring our Emissions

Table of Contents


This report is to disclose our GHG inventory and our efforts in reducing our contribution to climate change.  It explains how we measure greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and set targets to reduce them. It is intended for us to measure all aspects of our Resort operations as best we can and is work in progress as we further refine and discover ways to capture data and work on reducing our impact on our environment.

There are direct benefits to our organisations from measuring and reporting as we will benefit from lower energy and resource costs, a better understanding of our exposure to the risks of climate change and a demonstration of leadership which will help strengthen our green credentials in an increasingly environmentally conscious regional forum. As we progress, we will as an organisation seek information from our suppliers on greenhouse gas emissions and they also will eventually be requested to measure and report on their emissions in relation to the goods and services they provide us.

We are currently not required to measure and report nor submit or make data available to government. We understand that this is going to change in the very near future – but our Co2 reporting is not driven by legislation or the threat thereof, but by our own conscious desire to reduce our impact on climate change by reducing our carbon emissions; As the main purpose is for our organisation is to understand the emissions that we are responsible for,  should not be concerned about the double-counting of our own emissions with those emissions being reported by others (if in fact such reports do exist here in Fiji in 2020).

The Fiji Government is conducting public consultations for the introduction of a Climate Change Bill which will most likely include reporting obligations for all businesses. It will include the development and evaluation of a national climate change policy and will include private sector engagement.

The Challenge of Climate Change

Climate change is a global problem and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) sets an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenges posed by climate change. The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the UNFCCC which sets binding targets for industrialised countries to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

What is government doing to respond to the threat of climate change?

Fiji’s new proposed climate change law affects every Fiji citizen regardless of whether s/he is a Minister, Member of Parliament, Permanent Secretary, a CEO of a company, a builder, an IT expert, a marine scientist or proponent of marine conservation, a retailer, a farmer, or a member of a community or neighbouring Pacific Island country at risk of displacement as a result of climate change.

In the last few years, Fiji has become a global and regional leader in raising awareness of climate change, its effects and what all nation States should do to reduce their emissions to keep us within 1.5C of average global warming and avoid dangerous climate change. Fiji’s leadership in this arena has produced a draft Climate Change Bill (the Bill) which is available for public consultation. It has been reported (Fiji Sun, 8 August 2019) that the government of Fiji intends the Bill to become law, by being passed as an Act of Parliament before December 2019 – (which has not happened due to a lack of stakeholder consultation and thus pushback by the community). When the Bill is passed it will become the Climate Change Act (the Act). Although not presently law, to avoid confusion we simply refer to the proposed legislation as “the Bill” or “the legislation” in this introduction as it has not, as yet, become an Act of Parliament.

The primary purpose of the Bill is to implement Fiji’s international commitments and obligations to reduce its carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions. Human activity is resulting in the release of too much carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and this is leading to changes in our climate. While the causes of climate change are understood, the effects of climate change and how to remedy the causes and impacts of climate change are matters of complexity.

The proposed Bill is both extraordinary and wide ranging because among other things, the Bill declares a climate emergency, creates new government bodies tasked with meeting emission targets, creates new criminal offences, and paves the way for regular review processes for existing policies and new policies to address climate related issues or to reduce/adapt to the impacts of climate change. These new climate change policies include an Oceans Policy for Fiji and a 10 year moratorium on seabed mining.

In its present draft development, by putting in place a framework to deal with climate change and its impacts in a coherent way the Bill has wide-ranging implications. For instance, it lays the foundation for carbon pricing and trading mechanisms to be introduced in the future. The Bill requires the disclosure by companies and state-owned entities of their exposure to climate risks and the measures they are taking through investment decisions to reduce them. It consolidates previous policy announcements on plastics and marine protection.

Further, the Bill also introduces innovative climate litigation, adaptation and resilience measures and includes principles and processes related to how those most affected by climate change should be relocated (climate displacement for at risk communities).

The draft Bill requires that all measures are underpinned by commitments to gender equality, social inclusion and human rights and this could be further strengthened by ensuring that the governance mechanisms proposed in this legislation are inclusive and require, for example, the representation of a certain proportion of men and women and persons with disabilities. Dealing with climate change will require a whole-of-society response and partnerships between government, civil society and the private sector.

Specific mechanisms to formalise engagement and consultation processes with civil society and the private sector could also be added to the governance mechanisms proposed to ensure they are inclusive.

More information is available at

Overview of our process


We are in the process of producing our inventory, learning as we go about data sources, methodologies, uncertainties and assumptions behind the emission factors for each emission source. We have approached multiple suppliers for upstream activities and have had varying responses. We have also sought technical assistance in understanding and calculating the Co2 equivalents of certain Resort activities with again varying degrees of success and as such we have been capturing data but may not be able to convert such activities at this time until more information is available.

We have identified which activities in our organisation / organisations are responsible for GHG emissions being released into the atmosphere.  The most widely accepted approach is to identify and categorise emissions-releasing activities into three groups. The three scopes are:


Scope 1 (Direct emissions): Activities owned or controlled by our organisation that release

emissions straight into the atmosphere. They are direct emissions.

Examples of scope 1 emissions include emissions from combustion in owned or controlled boilers, furnaces, vehicles; emissions from chemical production in owned or controlled process equipment.

Scope 2 (Energy indirect): Emissions being released into the atmosphere associated with our consumption of purchased electricity and cooling. These are indirect emissions that are a consequence of our organisation’s activities but which occur at sources we do not own or control.

Scope 3 (Other indirect): Emissions that are a consequence of our actions, which occur at

sources which we do not own or control and which are not classed as scope 2 emissions.

Examples of scope 3 emissions are business travel by means not owned or controlled by our organisation, waste disposal, or purchased materials or fuels.

In some instances, it may be difficult for us to identify whether emissions should be categorised as scope 1 or scope 3 emissions. For example, this may be because your emissions sources come from outsourced activities, leased assets or the like.

Statement of Intent

This inventory forms part of Colo-I-Suva Holdings Pte Limited T/A Colo-I-Suva Rainforest Eco Resort’s  commitment to measure and manage our emissions

Organisational Description

Colo I Suva Rainforest Eco Resort is a unique and exclusive resort property located in Colo-I-Suva, Fiji. The resort was one of Fiji’s first, purpose-built ecotourism resort and captures a thus far, untapped market of tourists looking for a sustainable, minimal impact resort experience.

The property offers a restaurant, and full conference facilities with all supporting infrastructure as well as 22 rooms in picturesque surroundings.

Colo-I-Suva Rainforest Eco Resort is located approximately 12 kilometres northeast of the Suva Commercial Centre on the western side of Princes Road, directly opposite the Forestry Departments Nursery at Colo-I-Suva. This position is approximately 15 minutes’ drive from both Suva City and Nausori Town, which is located to the south-eastern part of Viti Levu.

The resort occupies a land area of 1.0750 Hectares (or 2.656 Acres) of Native Lease land, with a 99 year lease term effective from 1st October 1998.

The resort comprises of:
– 7 Bures (lodges)
– 2 resort buildings; and
– 1 central core building

Facilities include:
– restaurant
– Bar
– Kitchen
– Office
– reception area
– poolside restaurant/bar
– conference room fully equipped; and
– staff quarters with laundry & workshop.

Emission Factors for data collected

These emission factors below are used to calculate our organisation’s greenhouse gas emissions. The emission factors are applied to activity data which is specified in various units. To appropriately apply the emission factors we collected data in the unit specified and then calculate our emissions using the following equation:

E = (Q × F)

E = emissions from the emissions source in kg CO2-e (per year)
Q = activity data, e.g., quantity of fuel used
F = emission factor for emissions source

This formula applies to both the calculation of CO2-e emissions and individual carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide emissions, with the appropriate emission factors applied for.

The preferred form of data is in the units expressed in the emission factor tables, which results in the most accurate emission calculation. If the data cannot be collected in this unit then appropriate conversion factors were / are used.

Current Calculations – Emissions as Co2E

Emission factors are provided in kg CO2-e and, at this time the breakdown by carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)  (in carbon dioxide equivalent, CO2-e) has not been provided.  It is envisaged that more details reporting will be available as we mature in our carbon reporting initiative.

Emission factors are provided for our CO2E emissions per unit as specified in the table, for example:

Emission sourceUnitkg CO2-e /unitinfo
Regular petrolLitre2.45Information provided by Pacific Energy
Generator HoursHour2.69Calculated on consumption of Fuel/hr of our 40KVA Generator
ElectricityKWH0.649Information provided by Energy Fiji Limited
Bulk gasLitre1.71Information provided by Blue Gas
Gas BottlesLitre1.71Information provided by Blue Gas
Garbageper Wheelie Bin9.68General waste is picked up by the garbage disposal company and disposed of (less compostable material)
Water ConsumptionLitre2.45Water is derived from our local source – using electric pumps and no chemicals
Waste Water – SepticCubic litres0.202Self-provided water supply (of which an estimated +/-  80% goes back to our Septic Tank)
RefrigerantKg1430.00Refrigerant used in any work done on equipment and air conditioners
DataMb.015Data used for administration and provided to guests
Electricity is based on:     
1 Tonne of Diesel Fuel burnt produces 3.0882 Tonne of Co2  
0.21 Tonne of diesel is burnt to produce 1MWH or 1000Kwh of electricity 
Source: Energy Fiji Limited     
Gas is based on:        
The Carbon dioxide Emission for Butane is 1.71 Kg per Litre and the calculated Carbon will be 0.466 Kg per Litre  
Source: Petroleum & Gas Company (Fiji) Pte Limited     
Waste Water is based on:       
Domestic Waste water – Septic Tanks per M3 of water supplied = 0.202 Kg CO2E :  
Uncertainties: (Methane emissions is ±40%, nitrous oxide emissions ±10%)   
Refrigerant is based on:       
R134a is a HFC, R134a is also known as Tetrafluoroethane (CF3CH2F)    
Global warming potentials in a 100 year period (Kg CO2e) = 1,430    
Generator use is based on:       
Cummins 40KVA Generator       
Approx. fuel consumption per hour = +/- 15.14 litres/hr on full load –    
Given that loading is usually 1/2 or less = 8.7Litres per hour    
Generator uses Diesel which is 2.69 CO2E      
Petrol & Diesel is based on:       
Transport Fuel Emission factors – Petrol = 2.45 CO2E/unit ( litre)    
Transport Fuel Emission factors – Diesel = 2.69 CO2E/unit ( litre)    
Waste is based on:        
240 L Wheelie Bins        
Composition of wase is unknown, but is usually without compostable material  
General Waste is 0.242 CO2E per kg – each wheelie ben is assumed to contain +/- 40Kg of waste = (0.242×40)  
Data is based on:        
The Carbon dioxide Emission for one-megabyte of broadband  (= 1 MB)  emits 11 g of CO2 (UK)
The Carbon dioxide Emission for a one-megabyte email ( = 1Mb) during its life cycle is 20g of Co2

What we are currently measuring

Scope 1 (Direct emissions):

  • Generator Hours (self-generated electricity)
  • Water consumption (our resort manages its own water supply)
  • Waste Water (septic tank emissions)

Scope 2 (Energy indirect):

  • Purchased Electricity

Emissions being released into the atmosphere associated with our consumption of purchased electricity and cooling. These are indirect emissions that are a consequence of our organisation’s activities but which occur at sources we do not own or control.

Scope 3 (Other indirect):

  • Garbage disposal
  • Fuel – (Motor Vehicle and Resort Equipment)
  • Gas consumption (for cooking and for hot water generation)

Emissions that are a consequence of our actions, which occur at

sources which we do not own or control and which are not classed as scope 2 emissions.

Examples of scope 3 emissions are business travel by means not owned or controlled by our organisation, waste disposal, or purchased materials or fuels.

Gaps and Unknown

Colo-I-Suva Rainforest Eco Resort avoids the use of single use cups, straws or plates and cutlery. All waste is separated into garbage, and recyclables. General waste is disposed by means of wheelie bins, and is picked up by the garbage disposal company and disposed in accordance with Fiji law and government practice. Recyclables are also disposed of via relevant collectors of recyclable material.

Green waste is composted on site to be used as fertilizer.

Used cooking oil is either traded with a local farmer in exchange for fresh eggs, given to staff who wish to take it home for re-purposing or used to make floor polish with the peel from the used lemons and vinegar.

Some paper waste is shredded and used in garden compost.

In addition, we employ the following practices to minimize waste:

  • use durable items, such as cups, glasses, dishes, tableware, storage containers
  • buy fresh and local to reduce packaging and transportation emissions
  • purchase in bulk to reduce packaging
  • recycle paper, glass, plastic, aluminium
  • produce as little waste as practicable in the kitchen
  • serve our own filtered water in recycled bottles or glass jugs
  • use biodegradable cleaning products (harsh chemicals are banned where practical)
  • compost organic matter
  • Colo-I-Suva Rainforest Eco Resort does not supply plastic bags for guest laundry – reusable non-woven bags may be purchased at resort reception.
  • General waste is picked up by the garbage disposal company and disposed of. Waste is recorded and monitored with a view to analysing our waste and reducing the waste volume and thus CO2E emissions it produces.

We are actively seeking to understand the positive impact of these measures in terms of Carbon credits and/or carbon emission reduction measured as a Co2E factor.